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Thousands of trees are struck by lightning every year. These trees will have varying degrees of damage ranging from complete shattering and destruction of the tree, to a slow lingering death, to virtually no apparent damage at all (Figure 1).
Tree defects such as co-dominant leaders, girding roots and buried trunk flares, present at time of planting, cause failures and decline long after the warrantee period has expired. Landscape architects may go to nurseries to tag trees; but often inspe
Ice or snow loads can cause branch breakage or failure of entire trees and shrubs. Branches or entire trees that fall in storms can impact homes, vehicles, power lines and block roads.
As the pace of urban development increases, urban green spaces, and urban trees in particular, come in direct conflict with bulldozers and backhoes.