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Thousands of trees are struck by lightning every year. These trees will have varying degrees of damage ranging from complete shattering and destruction of the tree, to a slow lingering death, to virtually no apparent damage at all (Figure 1).
Conifers are commonly planted in North America to provide year-round screening, as windbreaks or as focal trees in the landscape.
Island systems are among the most vulnerable to climate change, which is predicted to induce shifts in temperature, rainfall and/or sea levels.
Urban forests are recognized for the multiple benefits they provide to city‐dwellers.
However, climate change will affect tree species survival and persistence in urban
An Urban Tree Canopy (UTC) assessment, which provides a measure of a community’s tree canopy cover, is important for understanding the extent of a community’s forest or tree resource.
Improving urban forests is one of the solutions to achieving several of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and making cities healthier and more livable for people.
The nation’s forest land area remains stable, but the composition and distribution of those forests is changing.
Although the effects of climate on species richness are known, regional processes
may lead to different species richness–climate relationships across continents
North American forests and forest management institutions are experiencing a wide range of significant ecological disturbances and socioeconomic changes, which point to the need for enhanced resilience.
Drought is a recurrent stress to forests, causing periodic forest mortality with enormous economic and environmental costs.