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Six elements are required in small amounts for the growth and development of plants. These are referred to as micronutrients: iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), and boron (B).
Needlecast and needle blight are terms applied to a variety of foliage disorders of many coniferous species. These diseases are usually more severe on young trees or on trees growing outside of their natural range.
Sonic tomography, or the use of sound waves to detect decay in trees, is a relatively new technology available to arborists.
Thousands of trees are struck by lightning every year. These trees will have varying degrees of damage ranging from complete shattering and destruction of the tree, to a slow lingering death, to virtually no apparent damage at all (Figure 1).
Conifers are commonly planted in North America to provide year-round screening, as windbreaks or as focal trees in the landscape.
This paper is intended to help the stormwater engineering community more easily account for trees in runoff and pollutant load calculations so that they can more readily incorporate them into their stormwater management strategies.
Across the world, companies with a wide range of business models are making money from planting trees.
U.S. urban land increased from 2.6% (57.9 million acres) in 2000 to 3.0% (68.0 million acres) in 2010. States with the greatest amount of urban growth were in the South/Southeast (TX, FL, NC, GA and SC).