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A widely accepted approach to assess extinction risk, and a key source of data underpinning the IPBES report, is the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (hereafter Red List).
Streamside forests of urbanizing coastal regions lie at the nexus of global changes: rising sea
levels, increasing storm surge, expanding urban development, and invasive species. To understand
Mycorrhizal fungi, of all types, hold huge significance for our planet and society. By forming mutualistic symbioses with the vast majority of land plants, mycorrhizas play an essential role
As land-use patterns change over time, some pollinating insects continue to decline both in abundance and diversity. This is due, in part, to reductions in floral resources that provide sufficient nectar and pollen.
As the number of local climate adaptation plans has rapidly grown during the past ten years in
response to increasing threats of climate change, cities and various organizations offer new insights
Sonic tomography, or the use of sound waves to detect decay in trees, is a relatively new technology available to arborists.
Thousands of trees are struck by lightning every year. These trees will have varying degrees of damage ranging from complete shattering and destruction of the tree, to a slow lingering death, to virtually no apparent damage at all (Figure 1).
Agriculture is comprised of managed ecosystems, which can include forests, rangelands
and crops; these managed ecosystems are vital resources, providing a host
Conifers are commonly planted in North America to provide year-round screening, as windbreaks or as focal trees in the landscape.