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Oak decline is a slow-acting disease complex that involves the interaction of biotic and abiotic factors such as climate, site quality and advancing tree age.
Iconic tree species include those native trees that once dominated the typical American city landscape. The American elm and chestnut are the first two that come to mind, and now ash trees are similarly under significant threat of loss.
Insect and disease infestations pose major threats to several North American forest tree species.
North American forests and forest management institutions are experiencing a wide range of significant ecological disturbances and socioeconomic changes, which point to the need for enhanced resilience.