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Oak decline is a slow-acting disease complex that involves the interaction of biotic and abiotic factors such as climate, site quality and advancing tree age.
Ice or snow loads can cause branch breakage or failure of entire trees and shrubs. Branches or entire trees that fall in storms can impact homes, vehicles, power lines and block roads.
Insect and disease infestations pose major threats to several North American forest tree species.
North American forests and forest management institutions are experiencing a wide range of significant ecological disturbances and socioeconomic changes, which point to the need for enhanced resilience.
The American chestnut, whitebark pine, and several species of ash in the eastern United States are just a few of the North American tree species that have been functionally lost or are in jeopardy of being lost due to outbreaks of pathogens and insect p