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The state of the world’s urban ecosystems: What can we learn from trees, fungi, and bees?

Positive interactions between people and nature inspire behaviours that are in harmony
with biodiversity conservation and also afford physical and mental health benefits.
Since most people live in towns and cities, urban greenspaces are key points
of influence for conservation, but also provide diverse ecosystem services. City
trees are a foundation for biodiversity in urban ecosystems, and their belowground
interactions with mycorrhizal fungi and aboveground interactions with pollinators
must be central to urban ecosystem planning. Messaging about biodiversity must be
clearer to avoid unintended negative outcomes from conservation actions such as
low diversity tree planting and unsustainable levels of urban beekeeping