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A decision framework for hemlock woolly adelgid management: Review of the most suitable strategies and tactics for eastern Canada

The invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) has decimated hemlock stands across much of the eastern United States, and presents a significant threat to all eastern hemlock in Canada across Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, especially since the recent detection of its widespread establishment in southwest Nova Scotia. The spread and rising infestation level and impacts of HWA in this region serve as a warning for forest managers across eastern Canada to develop appropriate management plans and priorities. The HWA decision framework presented here aims to prepare forest managers in eastern Canada for the decisions and challenges that they will face, from prevention, detection, and control, to hemlock ecosystem
restoration and management program evaluation. We review the strategies and tactics that are currently available, that are being developed, and that show the most promise to date. Given the nature of HWA, the longterm outlook for eastern hemlock in Canada will likely feature HWA as a component of hemlock ecosystems across much of the region, necessitating a comprehensive, adaptive management program to mitigate its ecosystem consequences.