This guidebook was developed out of strong evidence that audience research can strengthen audience-building initiatives by helping institutions understand how to build meaningful connections with different groups. Based on work with a diverse set of arts organizations undertaking multiyear audience-building initiatives, as well as on literature reporting broader research practices, it illustrates how research can support three tasks integral to successful audience building: (1) learning about potential audiences, (2) creating more effective promotional materials, and (3) tracking and assessing progress toward audience-building objectives.